ASAS STRICT LIABILITY DALAM PERTANGGUNGJAWABAN PIDANA KORPORASI PADA PROSES PEMBUKTIAN TINDAK PIDANA LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

Indonesia

  • Tiara Khoerun Nisa Fakultas Hukum Universitas Pasundan

Abstract

Bertambahnya jumlah penduduk yang mengakibatkan kegiatan konsumsi meningkat yang menuntut produsen untuk mampu memenuhi kebutuhan penduduk tersebut, sesuai penelitian Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia dengan hasil Sensus Penduduk (SP2020) bertambah 32,56 juta jiwa dibandingkan hasil SP2010, dengan luas daratan Indonesia sebesar 1,9 juta km2, maka kepadatan penduduk Indonesia sebanyak 141 jiwa per km. Korporasi seringkali tidak memperhatikan keadaan lingkungan sekitar dalam produksi dan usahanya sehingga mengakibatkan pencemaran yang sangat besar baik dari kuantitas maupun kualitas pencemarannya yang lebih besar bila dibandingkan produksi manusia perseorangan. Pengakuan korporasi sebagai subjek hukum yang dapat dipertanggungjawabkan secara pidana pada tindak pidana lingkungan hidup ditegaskan dalam Pasal 1 angka 32 UU No. 32 Tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup. Namun demikian pertanggungjawaban mutlak (strict liability) tersebut hanya sebatas kewajiban untuk membayar ganti rugi dalam hal gugatan keperdatan. Pertanggungjawaban mutlak (strict liability) dalam hukum pidana diartikan sebagai pertanggungjawaban tanpa kesalahan yaitu pertanggungjawaban pidana tanpa perlu pembuktian lebih jauh terhadap kesalahan dari si pelaku. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertanggungjawaban pidana korporasi berdasarkan asas strict liability dan implikasinya dalam proses pembuktian tindak pidana lingkungan hidup. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan yuridis-normatif yang digunakan untuk menganalisis permasalahan yang berkaitan dengan sistem pertanggungjawaban pidana pada tindak pidana lingkungan hidup, yang diteliti melalui asas strict Liability Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan asas strict liability secara luas ternyata banyak mendapat penentangan karena tindak pidana berbentuk kejahatan mensyaratkan sikap batin bagi pelakunya sehingga korporasi tidak mungkin memiliki mens rea. Prinsip tanggung jawab mutlak (strict liability) dibebankan kepada perusahaan lingkungan hidup yang nyata-nyata melakukan kesalahan/kelalaian dalam pengelolaan lingkungan hidup. Dengan demikian, maka pembuktian menjadi sederhana dan mudah diterapkan, sehingga tidak perlu memenuhi unsur yang dituduhkan kepada pelaku (dader). Berangkat dari prinsip ini, secara praktis kejahatan yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan hidup lebih banyak dibebankan kepada korporasi.
 
The increase in population has resulted in increased consumption activities which require producers to be able to meet the needs of the population, according to the research of the Indonesian Central Statistics Agency with the results of the Population Census (SP2020) an increase of 32.56 million people compared to the results of SP2010, with Indonesia's land area of ​​1.9 million km2, then Indonesia's population density is 141 people per km. Corporations often do not pay attention to the condition of the surrounding environment in their production and business, resulting in very large pollution both in terms of quantity and quality of pollution, which is greater when compared to individual human production. Recognition of corporations as legal subjects who can be criminally responsible for environmental crimes is affirmed in Article 1 number 32 of Law no. 32 of 2009 concerning Environmental Protection and Management. However, the absolute liability (strict liability) is only limited to the obligation to pay compensation in the case of a civil suit. Absolute liability (strict liability) in criminal law is defined as liability without error, namely criminal liability without the need for further proof of the guilt of the perpetrator. This study aims to determine corporate criminal liability based on the principle of strict liability and its implications in the process of proving environmental crimes. This study uses a juridical-normative approach that is used to analyze problems related to the criminal responsibility system for environmental crimes, which are examined through the strict liability principle. mental attitude for the perpetrators so that it is impossible for corporations to have mens rea. The principle of absolute responsibility (strict liability) is imposed on environmental companies that actually make mistakes/negligence in environmental management. Thus, the proof becomes simple and easy to apply, so there is no need to fulfill the elements accused of the perpetrator (dader). Departing from this principle, in practice, crimes related to the environment are mostly borne by corporations.The increase in population has resulted in increased consumption activities which require producers to be able to meet the needs of the population, according to the research of the Indonesian Central Statistics Agency with the results of the Population Census (SP2020) an increase of 32.56 million people compared to the results of SP2010, with Indonesia's land area of ​​1.9 million km2, then Indonesia's population density is 141 people per km. Corporations often do not pay attention to the condition of the surrounding environment in their production and business, resulting in very large pollution both in terms of quantity and quality of pollution, which is greater when compared to individual human production. Recognition of corporations as legal subjects who can be criminally responsible for environmental crimes is affirmed in Article 1 number 32 of Law no. 32 of 2009 concerning Environmental Protection and Management. However, the absolute liability (strict liability) is only limited to the obligation to pay compensation in the case of a civil suit. Absolute liability (strict liability) in criminal law is defined as liability without error, namely criminal liability without the need for further proof of the guilt of the perpetrator. This study aims to determine corporate criminal liability based on the principle of strict liability and its implications in the process of proving environmental crimes. This study uses a juridical-normative approach that is used to analyze problems related to the criminal responsibility system for environmental crimes, which are examined through the strict liability principle. mental attitude for the perpetrators so that it is impossible for corporations to have mens rea. The principle of absolute responsibility (strict liability) is imposed on environmental companies that actually make mistakes/negligence in environmental management. Thus, the proof becomes simple and easy to apply, so there is no need to fulfill the elements accused of the perpetrator (dader). Departing from this principle, in practice, crimes related to the environment are mostly borne by corporations.

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Published
Jul 27, 2022
How to Cite
NISA, Tiara Khoerun. ASAS STRICT LIABILITY DALAM PERTANGGUNGJAWABAN PIDANA KORPORASI PADA PROSES PEMBUKTIAN TINDAK PIDANA LINGKUNGAN HIDUP. MAHUPAS : Mahasiswa Hukum Unpas, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 02, p. 1-17, july 2022. Available at: <https://journal.unpas.ac.id/index.php/mahupas/article/view/5658>. Date accessed: 18 aug. 2022.
Section
Articles